Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Chess Middle Game Winning Position 1

Chess Middle Game Winning Position
By the time the student has digested all that has been previously posted, he, no doubt, is anxious to get to the actual game and play with all the pieces. However, before considering the openings, we shall devote a little time to some combinations that often arise during the game, and which will give the reader some idea of the beauty of the game, once he becomes better acquainted with it.

Here is a situation that can arise during the middle of a game.

It is Black's move, and thinking that White merely threatens to play Q - R 6 and to mate at K Kt 7, Black plays 1 ... R - K 1, threatening mate by way of R - K 8. White now uncovers his real and most effective threat, viz.:

1 ... R - K 1; 2 Q × P ch, K × Q; 3 R - R 3 ch, K - Kt 1; 4 R - R 8 mate.

Thursday, September 13, 2012

Chess Pawn Ending Example 3

Here white can win by advancing any of the three Pawns on the first move, but it is convenient to follow the general rule, whenever there is no good reason against it, of advancing the Pawn that has no Pawn opposing it. Thus we begin by—

1. P - B 5, K - K 2.

If P - Kt 3, P - B 6; and we have a similar ending to one of those shown above. If 1...P - R 3; 2 P - Kt 5.

2. K - K 5, K - B 2; 3. P - Kt 5, K - K 2.

If 3...P - Kt 3; 4 P - B 6, and if 3...P - R 3; 4 P - Kt 6 ch, and in either case we have a similar ending to one of those already shown.

4. P - R 5,

and by following it up with P - Kt 6 we have the same ending previously shown. Should Black play 4...P - Kt 3, then R P × P, P × P; P - B 6 ch with the same result.

Having now seen the cases when the Pawns are all on one side of the board we shall now examine a case when there are Pawns on both sides of the board.

Saturday, September 8, 2012

Chess Pawn Endings Example 2

In this position White can't win by 1 P - B 5. Black's best answer would be P - Kt 3 draws. (The student should work this out.) He cannot win by 1 P - Kt 5, because P - Kt 3 draws. (This, because of the principle of the "opposition" {15}which governs this ending as well as all the Pawn-endings already given, and which will be explained more fully later on.)

White can win, however, by playing: 1 K - K 4, K - K 3. (If 1...P - Kt 3; 2 K - Q 4, K - K 3; 3 K - B 5, K - B 3; 4 K - Q 6, K - B 2; 5 P - Kt 5, K - Kt 2; 6 K - K 7, K - Kt 1; 7 K - B 6, K - R 2; 8 K - B 7 and White wins the Pawn.)

2 P - B 5 ch, K - B 3; 3 K - B 4, P - Kt 3. (If this Pawn is kept back we arrive at the ending shown in Example 7.) 4 P - Kt 5 ch, K - B 2; 5 P - B 6, K - K 3; 6 K - K 4, K - B 2; 7 K - K 5, K - B 1. White cannot force his Bishop's Pawn into Q (find out why), but by giving his Pawn up he can win the other Pawn and the game. Thus:

8 P - B 7, K × P; 9 K - Q 6, K - B 1; 10 K - K 6, K - Kt 2; 11 K - K 7, K - Kt 1; 12 K - B 6, K - R 2; 13 K - B 7, K - R 1; 14 K × P , K - Kt 1.

There is still some resistance in Black's position. In fact, the only way to win is the one given here, as will easily be seen by experiment.

15 K - R 6 (if K - B 6, K - R 2; and in order to win White must get back to the actual position, as against 16 P - Kt 6 ch, K - R 1 draws), K - R 1; 16 P - Kt 6, K - Kt 1; 17 P - Kt 7, K - B 2; 18 K - R 7, and White queens the Pawn and wins.

This ending, apparently so simple, should show the student the enormous difficulties to be surmounted, {16}even when there are hardly any pieces left, when playing against an adversary who knows how to use the resources at his disposal, and it should show the student, also, the necessity of paying strict attention to these elementary things which form the basis of true mastership in Chess.

Monday, January 23, 2012

Chess Pawn Endings Example 1

Chess Pawn Endings Example 1In this position White cannot win by playing 1 P - B 6, because Black plays, not P × P, which would lose, but 1...K - Kt 1, and if then 2 P × P, K × P, and draws, as shown in a previous case. If 2 P - B 7 ch, K - B 1, and White will never be able to Queen his Pawn without losing it. If 2 K - K 7, P × P; 3 K × P, K - B 1, and draws. White, however, can win the position given in the diagram by playing:

1 K - Q 7, K - Kt 1; 2 K - K 7, K - R 1; 3 P - B 6, P × P. If 3...K - Kt 1; 4 P - B 7 ch, K - R 1; 5 P - B 8 (Q) mate.

4 K - B 7, P - B 4; 5 P - Kt 7 ch, K - R 2; 6 P - Kt 8 (Q) ch, K - R 3; 7 Q - Kt 6 mate

Thursday, January 19, 2012

Pawn Promotion Example 2

Chess Pawn PromotionIn this position White wins, as the King is in front of his Pawn and there is one intervening square. The method to follow is to advance the King as far as is compatible with the safety of the Pawn and never to advance the Pawn until it is essential to its own safety.


1. K - K 4, K - K 3.

Black does not allow the White King to advance, therefore White is now compelled to advance his Pawn so as to force Black to move away. He is then able to advance his own King.

2. P - K3, K - B 3; 3. K - Q 5, K - K 2.


If Black had played 3...K - B 4, then White would be forced to advance the Pawn to K 4, since he could not advance his King without leaving Black the opportunity to play K - K 5, winning the Pawn. Since he has not done so, it is better for White not to advance the Pawn yet, since its own safety does not require it, but to try to bring the King still further forward. Thus:

4. K - K 5, K - Q 2; 5. K - B 6, K - K 1.

Now the White Pawn is too far back and it may be brought up within protection of the King.

6. P - K 4, K - Q 2.

Now it would not do to play K - B 7, because Black would play K - Q 3, and White would have to bring back his King to protect the Pawn. Therefore he must continue.

7. P - K 5, K - K 1.

Had he moved anywhere else, White could have played K - B 7, followed by the advance of the Pawn to K 6, K 7, K 8; all these squares being protected by the King. As Black tries to prevent that, White must now force him to move away, at the same time always keeping the King in front of the Pawn. Thus:

8. K - K 6.

P - K 6 would make it a draw, as Black would then play K - B, and we would have a position similar to the one explained in connection with Example 5.

8...K - B 1; 9. K - Q 7.

King moves and the White Pawn advances to K 8, becomes a Queen, and it is all over.

This ending is like the previous one, and for the same reasons should be thoroughly understood before proceeding any further.

Saturday, January 14, 2012

Simple Checkmates: Queen and King Against King

Chess Position: Queen and King Against King Simple CheckmateWe now come to Queen and King against King. As the Queen combines the power of the Rook and the Bishop, it is the easiest mate of all and should always be accomplished in under ten moves. Take the following position as shown in the diagram.

A good way to begin is to make the first move with the Queen, trying to limit the Black King's mobility as much as possible. Thus: 1 Q - B 6, K - Q 5; 2 K - Q 2. Already the Black King has only one available square 2...K - K 4; 3 K - K 3, K - B 4; 4 Q - Q 6, K - Kt 4. (Should Black play K - Kt 5, then Q - Kt 6 ch); 5 Q - K 6, K - R 5 (if K - R 4, K - B 4 and mate next move); 6 Q - K Kt 6, K - R 6; 7 K - B 3, K moves; 8 Q mates.

In this ending, as in the case of the Rook, the Black King must be forced to the edge of the board; only the Queen being so much more powerful than the Rook, the process is far easier and shorter. These are the three elementary endings and in all of these the principle is the same. In each case the co-operation of the King is needed. In order to force a mate without the aid of the King, at least two Rooks are required.

Friday, January 13, 2012

Pawn Promotion Example 1

Chess Pawn PromotionThe gain of a Pawn is the smallest material advantage that can be obtained in a game; and it often is sufficient to win, even when the Pawn is the only remaining unit, apart from the Kings. It is essential, speaking generally, that the King should be in front of his Pawn, with at least one intervening square.

If the opposing King is directly in front of the Pawn, then the game cannot be won. This can best be explained by the following examples.

The position is drawn, and the way to proceed is for Black to keep the King always directly in front of the Pawn, and when it cannot be done, as for instance in this position because of the White King, then the Black King must be kept in front of the White King. The play would proceed thus: 1 P - K 3, K - K 4; 2 K - Q 3, K - Q 4. This is a very important move. Any other move would lose, as will be shown later. As the Black King cannot be kept close up to the Pawn, it must be brought as far forward as possible and, at the same time, in front of the White King.

3 P - K 4 ch, K - K 4; 4 K - K 3, K - K 3; 5 K - B 4, K - B 3. Again the same case. As the White King comes up, the Black King must be kept in front of it, since it cannot be brought up to the Pawn.

6 P - K 5 ch, K - K 3; 7 K - K 4, K - K 2; 8 K - Q 5, K - Q 2; 9 P - K 6 ch, K - K 2; 10 K - K 5, K - K 1; 11 K - Q 6, K - Q 1. If now White advances the Pawn, the Black King gets in front of it and White must either give up the Pawn or play K - K 6, and a stale mate results. If instead of advancing the Pawn White withdraws his King, Black brings his King up to the Pawn and, when forced to go back, he moves to K in front of the Pawn ready to come up again or to move in front of the White King, as before, should the latter advance.

The whole mode of procedure is very important and the student should become thoroughly conversant with its details; for it involves principles to be taken up later on, and because many a beginner has lost identical positions from lack of proper knowledge. At this stage of the book I cannot lay too much stress on its importance.